Armed Forces and COVID-19

Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic created new challenges, including for the armed forces. Since the beginning of this unprecedent health crisis, EUROMIL has been closely monitoring the role of European armed forces in fighting the virus and the overall support they provided to civilian authorities and the population. In almost all countries, armed forces and their members provided logistical and medical support to the authorities. Among others, they were tasked to transport medical supplies, set up field hospitals, distribute personal protective equipment and provide medical equipment and staff. Additionally, in some countries military personnel were requested to enforce lockdown measures or had other tasks such as disinfecting public places, conducting testing, or transporting dead bodies.

EUROMIL and its member associations acknowledge that in times of crisis, armed forces and their members must be engaged in supporting the population. However, they call for protection of those who protect!

Read the full text of EUROMIL recommendations on Handling the COVID-19 Pandemic in the European Armed Forces.

Country profiles

In this section, you will find more information about how armed forces are dealing with COVID-19 in European countries.


As part of the preventive measures against the spread of coronavirus, the Albanian armed forces are carrying out humanitarian operations, by distributing food aid to families, throughout the country. Additionally, they monitor and patrol the country with armoured vehicles. Further information available here 1 and 2.

Additionally, Albanian military pesonnel are following measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the state structures, based on the instructions issued by the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, Institute of Public Health and the World Health Organization. Further information available here.

Here is an interview to Olta Xhaçka, Albanian Minister of Defence.

On 28 March 2020, Albania sent 30 doctors and nurses to Italy showing its solidarity and friendship in fighting the COVID-19.

In February 2021, the Albanian armed forces engaged in the vaccination process, read here.


On 7 April, a team of specialists from the Russian armed forces arrived in the Republic of Armenia to help preventing the spread of COVID-19 and implement anti-epidemic measures. They additionally shared their experience and knowledge on the pandemic with the Armenian partners.

On 11 April, the Minister of Defence of the Republic of Armenia, David Tonoyan, and the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the Republic of Armenia, Sergey Kopirkin, got acquainted with the activities of the mobile laboratory of conducting testing for COVID-19 infection set up in Yerevan.

On 13 April, the Ministry of Defense set up checkpoints in all regions of Armenia with round-the-clock duties.

In June 2021, the COVID-19 crisis was discussed within the armed forces.


The Austrian armed forces are helping to mitigate the consequences of the coronavirus all over Austria. Information from March 2020 can be found here. For the latest updates, click here.


The Ministry of Defence of Azerbaijan transferred 50% of monetary allowance to the Fund to support fight against COVID-19. Further information available here.

On 2 April, Azerbaijan Defence Ministry decided to undertake measures to protect servicemen amid COVID-19 outbreak.

According to the news as of 16 April, military personnel delivered targeted assistance to families following the instructions of the Minister of Defence. Necessary food products, packed in the Central Food Warehouse of the Ministry of Defence, were delivered to the needy families, war veterans and disabled.


In February 2021, military hospitals started vaccinating the population. Military personnel also received vaccination.


Armed forces are working together with other departments and public services to plan military capabilities in various fields.

However, it has been acknowledged COVID-19 is clearly affecting the military’s day-to-day operations. The large-scale military exercise Defender 2020 with NATO countries in Europe has been cut. All internal travel not deemed mission-critical have been banned. The large-scale field exercises and daily training activities have been cancelled. Recruitment stations have been closed and education in military schools have been suspended. An infected coronavirus on board a warship forced the Navy to reduce its deployments.

A full list of the tasks carried out by the Belgian armed forces in the fight against COVID-19 is available here. Further general information on the measures  for military personnel, defence workers and their families, can be found here.

Our member ACMP-CGPM released a position paper on the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the military readiness. They acknowledged that this pandemic is bearing down on military readiness and eroding the military’s preparedness to fight. They included, furthermore, some suggestions to make training activities more pandemic-proof in the future.

The army’s medical personnel has been mobilized in retirement homes. Further details can be found here.

Further information on the deployment of Belgian defence resources in the fight against COVID-19, as of 2 May 2020, are available here.

A full chronology of Belgian defence activities, including the tasks carried out by the armed forces during COVID-19 since February 2, is available at the following link.

As approved by the Council of Ministers on Monday 27 April, the Minister of Defence, Philippe Goffin, has been instructed to provide 18 million masks for the whole population.

For further information on the Task Force Shortage and more particularly on the task force responsible for distribution and logistics, please read press information of 8 June 2020 in FR or NL.

Update 14 July 2020: The military contribution to fighting the pandemic has dropped to almost nil. The Belgian army still provides storage facilities for the storage of protective equipment and also helps with its distribution. Military medical personnel and the military hospital in Brussels act as a “back up” for the civil health services, but are currently no longer deployed themselves.

Update October 2020: In the beginning of October, Belgian armed forces were no longer actively involved in assisting the Government’s Covid-19 efforts. However, military personnel, infrastructure and equipment continued to constitute a ‘strategic reserve pool’ upon which the government can rely case by case. It mainly concerns: military medical personnel to provide support to civilian hospitals and homes for the elderly, warehousing facilities for protective equipment, distribution of protective equipment, military ambulances and the Brussels military hospital as a general support hospital in last resort. At the end of the month, the new Minister of Defence announced that 1500 members of the armed forces will be deployed to support the population with medical and paramedical staff, medical transport and logistics.
In January 2021, the military was involved in the storage and preparation of the vaccine against COVID-19, more information here.

Figures on numbers of Belgian service members infected with COVID-19, service members in quarantine, and members deployed in the fight against the pandemic can be found here.

Update January 2022:

Update January 17th 2022


    1. Tasks performed by the Belgian armed forces in the fight against the pandemic
  • 1,500 soldiers (6.25% of the total strength) are on standby since January 13th to assist the Belgian federal, regional and local authorities in the fight against the effects of (mainly) the Omikron variant of the Covid-19 virus.
  • Their possible tasks include:
    • Replacing staff who are out of work in residential care centres, hospitals and in vital sectors of the Belgian economy.
    • Patient transport by military ambulances.
    • Logistical support: storing and transporting medical equipment and any other equipment needed in the fight against the pandemic.
    • Military cooks who assist in preparing meals in hospitals and residential care centres.
  • In addition, 200 military health service personnel were deployed throughout the pandemic to vaccinate civilians and to receive patients from other hospitals in the Brussels military hospital in case the civilian hospitals were overburdened.


  1. Operating conditions and constrains
        • Vaccinations
              1. The current vaccination coverage among the Belgian military is 96%.
              2. There is no general obligation for vaccination. However, the following rules apply:
                  1. A COVID 19 vaccination is a prerequisite for military personnel who:

(1) Is participating in a mission or exercise/training activity at home or abroad;

(2) Is designated for a planned mission or exercise/training activity at home or abroad;

(3) Identified for an operational role at home or abroad (NATO Reaction Forces, Non-Combatant Evacuation operation, EUBG,…);

(4) Participating in a military essential activity where distance and/or wearing a mask and proper ventilation are not feasible (example: parachute from from a militaire plane A400M and other activities to be determined).

                  1. Military personnel remain Medical Operational Category A (Ops Cat A = fully opertional) as soon as they have completed a full vaccination cycle, consisting of:two vaccines.

In practical terms, this means that as of 1 January 2022, all military personnel for whom no full COVID-19 vaccination is registered in Total Health (the Ministry of Defence’s medical database) will automatically go from Med Ops Cat A to Med Ops Cat S, and can therefore no longer be deployed or participate in training activities. Naturally, they will also no longer receive the allowances that are paid for these activities. Moreover, this may have an impact on their careers.

              1. A booster vaccination will also be necessary in the near future.


        • Working conditions
              1. Defence personnel are required to telework from home, unless this is not possible for operational reasons or due to service necessities. This concerns units that are deployed or on standby for deployment, units that are preparing for deployment, operational headquarters, schools and other training institutions, operational support units and entities in charge of recruitment and selection.
              2. For those who are teleworking, there is a maximum of one return visit per week in their barracks.
              3. Furthermore, it is planned that soon FFP2 mouth masks will become compulsory to be worn instead of ordinary and surgical masks. The purpose of this is to provide better protection for the service members.

Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina 

On 2 April, Bosnia and Herzegovina requested international assistance  in response to COVID-19.

On 16 April, Bosnia and Herzegovina received support from Hungary and Slovenia that delivered medical supplies and other items, such as tents, field beds, sleeping bags, electric heaters and blankets.


According to the news as of 19 March, Croatian armed forces engaged in erecting a tent for a medical camp outside the Dubrava hospital in Zagreb. Further information available here.

On 9 April, Croatian Army offered its support to the Health Ministry’s crisis management team by providing Croatian Air Force’s helicopters addicted to transport patients infected with the coronavirus.

In October, it was reported that Croatian Army troops set up tents outside the University Hospital Centre (KBC) in Zagreb that will cater for triage procedures.


According to the information provided by EUROMIL’s member CAOA, the spread of  COVID-19 is tackled according to the usual routine in the National guard. Nevertheless, the safety and well-being of military personnel remain absolute top priority.

Czech Republic
Czech Republic 

On 10 April, a military transport aircraft CASA of the Czech Army transported 1,000,000 masks to North Macedonia, in response to the COVID-19 outbreak.

The Ministry of Defence of the Czech Republic has opened a page with latest news on the involvement of the armed forces in the fight against COVID-19 entitled: COVID-19: ARMY HELPS.


In March 2021, the armed forces were involved in controlling checkpoints.

In April 2021, vaccination started for military personnel.


Our member CS released its position on the Danish Defence measures.

In October 2020, Constables from the Emergency Management Agency and volunteers from the Home Guard are still engaged in supporting COVID-19 test centers and call centers.

In March 2021, the navy transported COVID-19 vaccines to remote areas.


A military field hospital was opened in the island of Saaremaa in Estonia on Thursday 2 April to treat COVID-19 cases following a volleyball game with an Italian team in March. Full article available here.

As part of the efforts to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic, Estonia donated medical supplies to Spain (21 April) and Italy (24 April), including 30,000 face masks and 2,000 units of disinfectant.

In March 2021 , military personnel supported hospitals with medical care.


Information about vaccination and containment of the spread of the virus in the armed forces is available here.


General information on the impact of the COVID-19 on the Finnish defence forces and the military can be found here and here. The material on the pages will be supplemented as the situation progresses.

The Finnish Defence Ministry made changes to the training and leave arrangements for conscripts and women in voluntary military service and changes regarding refresher training exercises. Further infomation available here.

In April 2021, the defence forces received rapid antigenic tests.


On Wednesday 25 March, the Ministry of Defence launched Opération Résilience against the spread of COVID-19. Additionally, the Ministry opened a related youtube channel.

According to the news as of 4 April, 600 French soldiers have been infected by Covid-19.

On 18 april, French Chief of Defence (CHOD), General François Lecointre explained, on TF1 France, what happened aboard the navy aircraft carrier Charles-de-Gaulle, where 1,046 sailors were infected by COVID-19: “Health of our staff is the most valuable asset we have. […] Without service personnel we are unable to defend our citizens”. The video is available here.

The Ministry of Defence has created a page of testimony for its engagement against COVID-19.

In June, the defence committee of the parliament presented a report on armed forces and COVID-19.

In 2021, the armed forces supported the authorities in the vaccination process. Vaccination centres continued to be set up in April.

The Ministry of Defence has opened a page on which you can find the latest news related to COVID-19 and armed forces.

GendXXI association expressed its opinion on both health and psychological consequences of COVID-19 outbreak amid the military.

APNM Gendarme et Citoyens called for the recognition of COVID-19 as work-related disease. Police officers, military personnel, firefighters (volunteers or professionals) and hospital civilian services are constantly serving the nation.


Georgian defence forces have been involved in the preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19.

The Defence Minister addressed the Georgian peacekeepers, who are serving in Afghanistan and the Republic of Central Africa, via video tele-conference (VTC) from the military command center, calling on the military personnel to show highest possible mobilization against the spread of coronavirus. Article and video available here. A statement of the Defence Ministry available here.

West Command of defence forces increased the number of checkpoints in its operation area to prevent coronavirus spread in Georgia. Article and video can be found here. Additionally, the administrative units of Kobuleti municipality have been added to the area of ​​operation of the Western Command.

According to the news as of 12 April, logistics Command of  Defence Forces conducted disinfection works at the territory of Giorgi Abramishvili Military Hospital  and Davit Agmashenebeli National Defence Academy of Ministry of Defence. Further information available here.

As part of the preventive measures against the spread COVID-19, the military of III Infantry Brigade together with the law enforcement officers have been involved in controlling quarantine restrictions imposed under the state of emergency at the Lentekhi entrance.

In May 2020, the Embassy of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland supported the Georgian Defence Forces for the preventive measures against the spread of COVID-19, more information here.


In April 2021, military personnel started to be vaccinated against COVID-19.


At the start of the crisis, the Bundeswehr provided administrative assistance to the Federal Ministry of Health, deploying a team of 15,000 soldiers to deal with the COVID-19 crisis. EUROMIL German member association DBwV provided us with some information concerning the tasks performed by the Bundeswehr during COVID-19 pandemic. 

Here you can find updates as of the end of April. DBwV stressed that the assistance was especially provided by military personnel when the civilian authorities and organisations have reached the limit of their capabilities. Additionally, military personnel helped with the procurement of medical equipment, the provision of beds and storage capacity for civilian facilities.

According to German news, “the Corona crisis puts the Bundeswehr on alert, especially its hospitals. After all, every hospital bed and every helping hand is needed. The army is pulling in reservists and many have come – voluntarily”. Further general information available here.

An overview about the current situation (status 11 August 2020) can be found here.

Update February 2021:

The Bundeswehr provided administrative assistance to the Federal Ministry of Health, deploying a team of  more than 18.000 soldiers to deal with the COVID-19 crisis pandemic. Currently, there are more than 1.400 active administrative assistance measures in the medical sector compared to more than 2.600 completed administrative assistance measures.

All the updated information regarding the engagement of the German armed forces in COVID-19 crisis can be found here.

DBwV has accompanied the situation critically and in the interest of the people in the Bundeswehr from the very beginning. It provides current updates on its website.

Additionally, information on the situation in Germany can be obtained from the following websites:

The magazine of DBwV, a one-year COVID-19 edition is available here.

June 2021: Article of the DBwV on the involvement of the armed forces in the crisis can be read here.

Update January 2022:

The Bundeswehr is still providing administrative assistance to a huge branch of German authorities that are integrated into German multi-level federalism.

Therefore, more than 6700 soldiers are on temporal duty in hospitals, retirement homes or involved into tasks related to the needs of health offices or involved into the management of the inoculation campaign.

It is widely recognized that German soldiers have shown immense dedication in combating COVID-19. According to the Ministry of Defence, the current vaccination rate is 96 per cent and the vaccination rate of soldiers abroad is 100 per cent.


All the updated information regarding the engagement of the German armed forces in COVID-19 crisis can be found here.

The DBwV has accompanied the situation critically and in the interest of the people in the Bundeswehr from the very beginning. It provides current updates on its website.

Additionally, information on the situation in Germany can be obtained from the following websites:


On 11 March, the Greek Ministry of Defence announced emergency measures for  the military personnel:

  • a “special leave” for parents who are both serving in the armed forces;
  • restriction of staff movements and thorough monitoring of suspected cases;
  • suspension of the academic courses in the military academies;
  • suspension of the military parade on 25 March;
  • ban on travel abroad;
  • cancellation of any international – European military training.

Additionally, in March, the Greek Minister of Defence ordered military factories to product medical supplies to support the hospitals.

On 12 March, our member PFEARFU requested the extension of the “special leave” provision to vulnerable military personnel or those responsible for people with disabilities and incurable diseases. The request was accepted by the government.

On 16 March and 5 April, PFEARFU asked for an allowance, as an extraordinary financial support to armed forces health personnel. It was accepted by the government. Press releases available here and here.

On 22 March and 9 April, PFEARFU asked for protective measures against COVID-19 for military personnel in the Evros border area, camps and immigrant facilities.  Press releases available here and here.

On 26 March, PFEARFU launched a blood donation campaign due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis and the large shortage it caused.

On 11 April PFEARFU, in collaboration with the regional governor, collected and distributed medical supplies in a military hospital and military camps in northern Greece.

The Hellenic National Defence General  Staff issued a series of strict measures against COVID-19 to facilitate the daily work and protect military personnel. It made changes to training and leave arrangements for conscripts, issued guidelines for disinfection of camps and quarantined colleagues infected with the virus. Press releases available here, here and here.

On 14 April, PFEARFU held a formal meeting with the Minister of National Defence, Mr. Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, the Deputy Minister of National Defence, Mr. Alkiviadis Stefanis and the Director of the Minister’s Office, Mr. Athanasios Valaris.  The main issues discussed were: the protective measures for the Armed Forces personnel against COVID-19, the need for new legislation to regulate ranking injustices for the NCOs, the elimination of bureaucracy regarding the issuance of pensions, the elimination of injustices related to insurance contributions. The meeting was fruitful and the political leadership committed to resolve the above mentioned issues and to maintain a close social dialogue. Press release available here.

On 6 May 2020, the Ministry of National Defence issued a press release on infected personnel in the Greek armed forces.


Update October 2020:
The Armed Forces continue to participate in the fight against COVID-19 by providing personnel, equipment and means uninterruptedly throughout the crisis. The Armed Forces continue to participate in the fight against the pandemic in the following main ways:
1. A COVID – 19 clinic has been designated in each military hospital to deal with cases that will come to the hospital and be diagnosed with the virus or for those who catch the virus during their treatment.
2. Medical Personnel of the AF has been charged with the responsibility of conducting COVID-19 tests to detect the virus at the entrance gates of our country (Ports, Airports, etc.).
3. Military personnel, mainly doctors, have been allocated to state health structures in the remote areas of the province and the islands to cover the large shortages of staff that exist in the hospitals of these areas.
4. Military factories continue to produce sanitary material (masks, antiseptics, etc.) which they also provide in civil sanitary structures.

Update January 2021:
The Hellenic AF contribute to the epidemiological surveillance of the Greek population against coronavirus, participating in a program that developed 130 sampling stations for rapid diagnostic tests.
The sampling stations developed in 73 cities in Greece, from 97 units/camps of the 3 Branches of the AF, including the Military Hospitals, thus covering the 13 administrative districts of the country.
The stations are housed in well-designed areas of the military units and have been staffed with doctors, nurses and secretarial support staff of the Army, Navy and Air Force, while the Civil Protection provided the necessary technical and sanitary equipment, such as rapid-test kit and personal protective equipment.
At the same time, the participation of the AF in many actions and interventions continues with the aim of limiting the spread of COVID 19, the provision of high quality health services to the personnel of AF and their families, but also the relief of the society from the health crisis.
In particular, the following 7 actions continue uninterrupted:
The provision to the Ministry of Health of 35 single beds and 18 ICU beds in the Military Hospitals to cover the increased needs for COVID-19 cases.
The provision of ICU beds to cover general cases.
The availability of 2 clinics of 424 Military Hospital, with a capacity of 28 beds each, for the transfer of non-COVID cases of the Vascular-Neurosurgical Surgery Clinics of AHEPA Hospital, in order for the respective AHEPA clinics to be available for patients with infection.
The development and operation of the 300 Mobile Health Units of Emergencies in the courtyard of 424 M.H.
The support in transporting non-COVID cases by ambulance of 424 M.H.
The disposal of two hundred and thirty two (232) Health military staff at the General Secretariat of Civil Protection, , at the COVID19 Reference Laboratories of Athens and Thessaloniki, at the Region of Eastern and Western Macedonia, at the Crisis Management Team of the Regional Unit of Kastoria, Xanthi, at the Echinos Health Center as well as at the entrance gates of the country (ports, airports).
The preparation and distribution of antiseptic solutions to meet the needs of the Ministry of Health and the AF.

Update April 2021, the armed forces are still assisting health authorities with beds in military hospitals, mobile health units, ambulances, medical staff and the preparation and distribution of antiseptic solution.

Update January 2022: New COVID-19 test centres have been constructed.


EUROMIL’s Hungarian member HOSZ provided an  overview on the tasks performed by the Hungarian Defense Forces (HDF) in the fight against COVID-19.

Information on the engagement of the Hungarian armed forces engagement can be found on the website of the Hungarian Ministry of Defence here.

HOSZ continues to maintain contact with the HDF leadership and to keep military personnel informed about special rules and possibilities in the field of labour related to the state of emergency.

In March 2021, the armed forces deployed military buses to help authorities in the vaccination campaign.


The Irish Defence (DF) have moved very quickly to support both the government and the National Health Service. Last month, DF “Alert Status” and posture dramatically changed, allowing military personnel to be prepared and deployed in support of the national effort and resilience in fight COVID-19. All the DF’s resources, with the exception of their commitment to internal security and overseas operations (UN/NATO and EU), have been deployed to support primarily the National Health Service. Measures taken by DF include:

  • the deployment of officer cadets and bandsman to perform ‘contact tracing’ duties with them now performing training of other public sector workers as the tasks increase;
  • the building of a new COVID-19 specific Task Force headquarters which coordinates and directs all DF activities for the health service, police prison service etc.;
  • the building of test centres across the state;
  • using 3 x Naval service ships as support platforms (feeding, power, water, storage) for testing centres;
  • cessation of all non-core activities (training activities, exercises, general administration);
  • creation of temporary morgues;
  • upgrading of military medical facilities enabling them to accept civilian patients;
  • the deployment of a large number of our medical officers to support public hospitals, national ambulance service;
  • the support offered by Air Corps personal to national ambulance coordinating centres ( some MOs are supporting ambulance crews over the phone);
  • ‘staff planning’ proceeding for worst case scenarios – mass fatalities, public order, support national police).

Additionally, DF headquarters have produced a number of ‘Operational’ and ‘General Routine’ orders as well as a series of information/support videos and soldiers cards.

In the current COVID-19 situation, Commandant Dorota O’Brien, Chief Military Psychologist, encourages all personnel and their families to look after their mental health: the video is available here. Further information provided from the Defence Forces Psychology Department concerning COVID-19 and Mental Health can be found here.

Update January 2021:

The Irish Defence Forces are working with HSE (Health Service Executive).
The roles that DF are as follows,
1. DF Tracking and Tracing.
2. DF Staff are Working in Care Homes doing administration roles.
3. ATCP Duties and Tasks (aid to civil power).
4. DF Military Medics are working with frontline HSA Staff and Ambulance crews.
5. DF Military are helping in the setting up COVID-19 vaccination centres across Ireland.
6. It has been recommended that prioritisation of a number of Defence Forces personnel, DF Frontline ie medical personnel for early vaccination against COVID-19.
7. The Naval Service has identified a requirement for a COVID-19 testing system to be conducted immediately before sailing for each ship’s company.
8. Air corps personnel are transporting COVID-19 samples to Germany weekly.

Update April 2021:

Members of the Defence Forces continue to play a central role in the fight against COVID-19 with members deployed swabbing, vaccinating and recently deployed as state liaison officers at quarantine hotels. They continue to carry out logistical functions together with their day-to-day role in preserving the security of the State.

Additionally, members continue to undertake pre-deployment training for overseas missions and career courses. Induction training has also continued despite the pandemic. However, numbers departing the Defence Forces continue apace with significant difficulties being experienced in the Naval Service.

Update January 2022:

The Joint Task Force (which command authority to order units to perform HSE support tasks) remains in place but with significantly reduced full time staffing. In many cases, Defence Forces Headquarters staff are working in their normal roles in the HQ, but double-hatted in the JTF too.  The JTF remains temporary in nature and while the Defence Forces are still involved in supporting the HSE it is significantly reduced.  As mandatory quarantine has ceased so has the Forces’ support to this tasking but vaccination, testing, contract tracing and logistical support remained in situ.

Regarding covid vaccination,

instruction from the Director of the Defence Forces Medical Branch now states that all personnel deploying overseas are required to be vaccinated against Covid-19. Additionally it states that, ideally new inductees would enter into the DF already vaccinated but where not they are to be vaccinated during induction training.


The Italian armed forces supported national health through: the dispatch of military doctors and nurses, the setting up of field hospitals, the provision of military health facilities for the reception of patients, the transport of medical equipment and the support to the police in public security activities. Further information available here.

All the latest updates are available here.

Our member ASSODIPRO provided us with an overview of the situation of the armed forces in Italy and the support provided by the entire Defence sector in the fight against COVID-19. The Italian armed forces are playing an increasingly important role in the management of the Covid 19 pandemic.

As military forces are increasingly exposed to risks of contagion, ASSODIPRO intends to continue fighting for the recognition of the rights of the Italian military, including the right to health, as well as closely monitor the conditions of employment of members of the armed forces.

On 22 April, the Public Service CGIL (FP) launched a digital listening service called “Funzione Protettiva” with the aim of taking care of the psychological well-being of the frontline health workers in the COVID-19 emergency, as they are daily exposed to intense stress, both physically and psychologically.

During this health emergency, the Italian army provided the country with military personnel, means and specialised infrastructures. In the no.2 of the official periodic of Italian Defence Force “Informazioni della Difesa”, you can find an overview of all the tasks that Italian armed forces are carrying out to fight COVID-19.

In October 2020, the Italian defence launched a new operation called “Operation Igea” in support of the population.

In February 2021, the vaccination campaign was guided by a military expert in logistics, Figliuolo.

The military is conducting operation EOS to vaccinate the population. Overall news concerning the involvement of the armed forces in the crisis can be found here.


On 18 March, Latvian armed forces suspended all kinds of training and events that are not crucial for maintaining combat capabilities and fulfilment of international obligations. “We are taking all necessary safety measures to prevent virus from further spreading, we want to protect our soldiers and our allied troops from contracting virus in the next weeks. The main task of our armed forces is to be ready for combat and our military have to continue to provide defence even in a state of emergency”, stressed the Defence Minister Artis Pabriks.

From 23 to 27 March, Latvian armed forces at the Adazi Training area tested their preparedness to help contain the Covid-19 outbreak.  Additionally, Latvian armed forces developed protocols, identified human resources and infrastructure that can be used to manage the crisis and respond to emergency in case of rapid spreading of COVID-19. They are ready to provide support in curbing the spread of COVID-19 to healthcare sector and Ministry of Interior as soon as it is required.


FAQ: Lithuanian armed forces against COVID-19. Constantly updated.

On March 29, a team of Croatian and German military medics with specialised equipment arrived from Croatia to Lithuania by a special flight to take care of the NATO enhanced Forward Presence Battalion Battle Group personnel who had been diagnosed with COVID-19. Article available here.

Raimundas Karoblis, Minister of Lithuanian Defence,  during the European Union Defence Ministers’ teleconference meeting on April 6: “The coronavirus crises has not only decreased security threats in Europe but also created conditions for them to grow. The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent emergency is used for malignant spread of disinformation and cyber-attacks aimed at discrediting countries’ efforts to control the spread of the virus”.

In December 2020, the armed forces stepped up its assistance to authorities, read here.


The Army has been called to provide assistance to the Ministry of Health: video available here.

Over the Easter weekend, Luxembourg Defence transported medical equipment to Lithuania. Further information and pictures available here.

Additionally, rescuers from the Army health service offered their support to emergency services (CGDIS). Pictures available here.

The army has been tasked to deliver masks, first in April to craft businesses and SMEs and then in May to cross-border workers.


During the initial phases of the pandemic, the authorities assigned the AFM as an extension to the public services in becoming an Aid to Civil Power (ATCP).

Armed forces of Malta are assisting the Health Authorities in the delivery of groceries and daily needs to citizens who are under quarantine in their respective residences. More pictures can be found on the Malta Armed Forces facebook page.

In February 2021, military personnel started being vaccinated against COVID-19. The medical team of the armed forces also started vaccinating other workers.


Military and civilian personnel provided one working day’s salary to better support COVID-19 prevention.

The Army supported the Ministry of Health, Labour and Social Protection for the arrangement of the Public Medical-Sanitary Institution COVID-19 Chisinau Center. Full article available here.

The National Army monitors and supervises, together with the police, the movement of people in  Soroca and Stefan Voda. Full article available here.

In May 2020, the armed forces continue to support the population against the spread of COVID-19. Information here.  The Moldovan defence also received protective equipment medical support from other countries, including Romania, the UK and the US.

In June 2020, the armed forces reported on the number of infected personnel. Staff supported civilian authorities with patrol and surveillance actions.

All the latest information are available at the following link.


The Prince’s Company of Carabiniers has been authorised to wear work clothes rather than the traditional uniform in order to facilitate cleaning requirements and respect barrier gestures to stem the possible spread of COVID-19. Article available here. On 19 June 2020, the Prince’s riflemen returned to service.


In February 2021, armed forces were engaged in testing.


According to the news as of 4 April, Montenegro’s armed forces engaged in disinfection and surveillance of public buildings, including the Ministry of Defence and a military hospital.

EUROMIL Montenegrin member SOVCG provided further information concerning the daily work of Montenegro armed forces in the fight against COVID-19.

Every day, 200 men and women engage in various tasks, ranging from safeguarding quarantines and  decontaminating vehicles and facilities, to helicopter transport of endangered medical equipment. They also assist the population in cooperation with the Red Cross.

SOVCG also gives its contribution in this COVID-19 fight through the commitment of its members in safeguarding quarantine, in supporting medical institutions and other tasks. More information available  here.


EUROMIL Dutch members AFMP and MARVER reported on general measures taken by the armed forces against COVID-19.  Additionally, AFMP and MARVER decided to keep a COVID-19 log: all the updates from 10 March to 8 April are available here.

The log was reactivated in autumn 2020 on the website of AFMP.

Dutch defence is supporting civil authorities in the fight against COVID-19: more information available here.

On 22 April, the Netherlands delivered personal protective equipment and medical supplies from China to Montenegro, in support of the efforts against the COVID-19 global pandemic, following Montenegro’s request for assistance through NATO’s Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre.


AFMP published a survey conducted among defence personnel on the Dutch defence corona policy.


In October 2020, lessons learned were identified by the Ministry of Defence.


In April 2021, soldiers are still deployed to support the Dutch public administration and health care system with physicians, nurses and logistic personnel. Link to the page of the Ministry of Defence on the involvement of the armed forces here.

North Macedonia
North Macedonia

Despite the expansion of COVID-19, the activities of EUROMIL member NSO did not stop; on the contrary, they provided assistance to members of the Army to fight the pandemic in the whole country.

The Ministry of Defence cooperates with the Ministry of Health and the City of Skopje, deploying mobile military hospital to expand the civilian medical capacity for the citizens with Covid-19.

The Ministry of Defence received medical support from Bulgaria.

Military medical personnel will be rewarded for their involvement in the crisis, more information here.


Information on the involvement of Norwegian armed forces in the COVID-19 crisis can be found here.

Information for the staff is accessible here.

The armed forces published a quick guide on coping with quarantine and isolation, EN. It also published on the “Corona Front“, including on handling mental health of young recruits in times of pandemic and on moral injury.


Polish armed forces are performing various tasks during COVID-19 situation, using as well armaments and full-time weapons. There have long been regulations in Poland that allow the army to support the training of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration in the tasks related to public order protection. The General Command points out that soldiers carrying out these tasks are equipped with full-time small arms. Further information available here.

According to the information our member KONWENT reported, soldiers are supporting local communities, especially the elderly people and quarantined (soldiers underwent medical training so that they are ready to help doctors to care for patients infected). Blood donation campaigns are underway within the army. Polish Territorial Defense Forces are working with police and border guards to stop the transmission of virus. The army is constantly helping the elderly and quarantined across country. Representatives (doctors and medical personnel) of the Military Institute of Medicine have just left with a scientific medical mission to Italy.

On the country level series of measures were undertaken in order to reduce the risk of COVID-19 spreading. Ministry of Health announced epidemiological threat in Poland as a one of measures to prevent the spread of the virus. On 31 April, further restrictions have been implemented.

On 23 April, Poland sent a medical mission from Warsaw’s Military Institute of Medicine to the United States in order to help with the fight against COVID-19.

Read the report on the involvement of the armed forces in Poland from December 2020 here.

Update April 2021: Since the beginning of the crisis, the Ministry of Defence and armed forces have been involved in the fight against the coronavirus by supporting local authorities and communities. Military hospitals, preventive medicine centres and laboratories were put on standby or on alert. Task force groups were created, made up of operational troops, logisticians and soldiers of the Territorial Defence Forces. Medical and other personnel were trained to support in this specific context and chemical military services were engaged in disinfection.


EUROMIL Portuguese members ANS and AP reported about the activities carried out by the armed forces in Portugal, including the risks the armed forces are facing in fulfilling the tasks assigned. ANS and AP thus call to endow military personnel with sufficient protection and appropriate equipment.

Here you can find an overview of the assistance provided by the Portuguese army to civilian entities, as well as a monitoring chart of COVID-19 cases in the army.

Information on the disinfecting role of armed forces in July 2020 is available here.

The Public Relations Department of the Portuguese Army published an information document with news (from 27 April to 3 May) on COVID-19 from countries around the world.

On 21 July 2020, newspapers reported 29 military personnel infected with the COVID-19, amongst them is a navy officer, the rest of the crew is in isolation and cannot leave the ship.

On 3 November 2020, the Portuguese government put the Armed Forces in a state of readiness to help fighting COVID-19. More information available here.

In January 2021, Germany sent military doctors to support Portugal in the fight against COVID-19, read here.

Updated information from early March 2021 can be found here. The military us responsible for the coordination of the vaccination process.


Over 13-17 April, medical equipment consisting in 100,000 protection suits airlifted from Germany to Romania, as part of the efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

On 16 April, the soldiers assigned to take part in the second rotation of “Carpathian Pumas” Detachment mission left for Mali on Thursday. Before leaving for mission, the entire personnel of the detachment went through a 14-day isolation period, being tested both at the beginning and the end of the isolation period.

On 17-18 April the ROL 2 military hospitals started to take over patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Further information available here.

In December 2020, vaccination of the military personnel started.


Two teams of Russian military doctors received patients with suspected coronavirus infection in Belgrade. Further information can be found here and here.

The Ministry of Defence deployed operational headquarters to prevent the spread of a new coronavirus infection in the armed forces. Operational groups work in formations, military units and organizations. Further information available here.

Information on the engagement of the Russian armed forces may be found on the website of the Ministry of Defence of Russia here.


EUROMIL Serbian member NEZAVISNOST outlined the tasks carried out by military personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic, denouncing the exposure of soldiers to the possibility of contagion.

NEZAVISNOST was able to arrange the procurement and donation of protective equipment and supplies in several garrisons. Contacts with the employer continued anyway as regards the presentation of important information, the suggestions for a better organisation and, finally, the protection of employees.

CBRN units were deployed for disinfection tasks.

Information on the engagement of the defence forces from September 2020 is available here.

Report from NEZAVISNOST in October 2020.

In February 2021, a large part of the defence staff had already been vaccinated against COVID-19.


EUROMIL Slovak member ZVSR reported on their information concerning COVID-19: “In the wake of the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, since early March 2020, measures that changed the training plans for the armed forces have been adopted. Following the declaration of the extraordinary situation in the Slovak Republic on 11 March 2020 and the subsequent health emergency, professional soldiers, in accordance with relevant measures, participated in helping the civilian population in cooperation with policemen (transportation of materials, guarding of state borders and buildings with people coming from abroad and obligatory in quarantine…)”.

In addition, ZVSR provided EUROMIL with an overview of the situation of the Slovak armed forces in the fight against COVID-19 and the assistance that the ZVSR is providing, such as the delivery of medical equipment to policemen and soldiers. In their document, they also referred to pandemic preparedness and the impact of the pandemic on the rights and freedoms of military personnel. Their report is available here.

On 20 April 2020, Slovakia delivered medical supplies to Italy in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Further information available here.


Update October 2020:
According to the Minister of Defence, the Slovak Republic deployed during the period from April to August 2020, almost 1,500 soldiers on some days, who were entrusted with various tasks – they helped with military doctors, supported the police at the borders, tried to be helpful in Roma communities and to assist hygienists within three operation (COURIER – disinfection delivery, CAROUSEL, UMBRELA – sampling, very first CIMIC operation in the Roma villages). Members of the armed forces were involved for the first time in domestic crisis management.

Based on a government resolution, the armed forces planned Operation “Common Wall” and as of 9 October 2020, 262 soldiers have been deployed in 14 mobile collection points, 12 regional public health offices and 16 hospitals throughout the Slovak Republic. On 18 October 2020, more than 500 soldiers have been deployed daily in 35 regional offices, 20 collection points and 38 hospitals. Up to 1,500 professional soldiers are to be deployed daily until 31 December 2020. Based on the requirements of the crisis staff of the Ministry of Health, soldiers assist with the guidance and administration of arriving at the entrances to hospitals and mobile collection points, with tracing and case tracing in regional public health offices. At the request of soldiers, they are ready to provide an assistance to members of the police force and the city police in checking compliance with the measures of epidemiologists. To fulfil the given tasks the necessary logistical support was planned. More than 200 pieces of computer equipment and the necessary number of mobile phones were set aside for the needs of tasks.

Update January 2021: ZVSR report.

In April 2021, soldiers received awards for extraordinary commitment in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic.


Slovenian armed forces set up accommodation facilities, in the Edvard Peperko Barracks, that will be used for people according to the needs expressed during COVID-19. Further information available here.

In April 2020, Brigadier General Robert Glavaš took over as Chief of the General Staff of the Slovenian Armed Forces. Addressing future activities, he highlighted the important role of the Slovenian military in stemming the spread of the new virus.


Military personnel from the Army, Navy, Air Force, Military Emergency Unit and Royal Guard are deployed against COVID-19 under Operation Balmis. The armed forces published the state of play of the operation on 15 May 2020.

On 24 March, AUME, AUCG, SUP and Servicios a la Ciudadania (CCOO) wrote a letter to the Spanish Prime Minister asking to provide people representing the four aforementioned associations with the necessary protection.

On 28 March, EUROMIL member ATME replied to the letter of gratitude of the Minister of Defence addressed to the military for their action in the COVID-19 crisis.

On 2 April, EUROMIL member AUME asked the Spanish Ministry of Defence to provide military personnel with adequate protection in the performance of their duties during COVID-19 crisis: “Who protects those who protect?”. In particular, AUME asked the Spanish Ministry of Defence to provide military personnel with the equipment and means of protection, as well as with access to the COVID-19 quick test. Military personnel are entitled to effective protection in health and safety in the exercise of their activities. Additionally, AUME reported serious dysfunctions in Operation Balmis affecting the safety of the military staff, their families and the population with which they interfere.

On 7 April AUME appealed to the Ombudsman against the health and safety  conditions of the armed forces members deployed against COVID-19 and complained about the lack of consultation and appointment of representatives of the Military Life Observatory. They called for the protection of the rights of all members of the armed forces, including those who are deployed in the Operation Balmis and those who are not but have still the right to health protection.

On 9 April, ATME sent a proposal to the Ministry of Defence, calling for the adoption of the necessary measures to ensure that members of the armed forces deployed in Operation Balmis, who are or become infected by COVID-19, are recognised the medical leave for professional contingency.

On 10 April, a video of AUME-AUGC-SUP-CCOO was released denouncing the lack of adequate measures to protect security personnel.

On 21 April, ATME requested the Spanish Defence to test all armed forces personnel to diagnose COVID-19. The armed forces are high-risk workers, since they carried out countless missions, being exposed to biological contacts, with the risk of being infected and transmitting them.

On 22 April, ATME, AUME and ASFASPRO associations requested an extraordinary plenary session  with the Chairmanship of the Armed Forces Personnel Council, scheduled for Monday 27 April. The associations put on the table topics that are affecting military personnel during the COVID-19 health crisis: working conditions of military personnel, the work-life balance, and health care for soldiers and their families.

On 27 April, ATME, AUME and ASFASPRO stressed that their main priority is to safeguard the interests (health, family reconciliation and professional promotion) of all military personnel. ATME presented the measures taken by the Army, and especially mentioned the work of the reserve “reservistas de especial disponibilidad (RED)”. During the meeting, the Minister simply thanked the efforts and work of the military and collected information from the associations. As AUME, ATME and ASFASPRO stated in their note: “The health of the members of the armed forces and that of their families deserve much more than a few simple words of thanks, which neither protect them nor serve as professional recognition”.

In May 2020, AUME has presented a new complaint to the Ombudsman regarding the restrictions in force on travel through national territory that seriously affect work-family reconciliation.

Running by Jorge Bravo, secretary of Organization, AUME has launched a YouTube channel to deal with specific issues affecting military personnel.

In the end of May 2020, AUME sent a new report to the Spanish Minister of Defence entitled Los Derechos no son residuales (“Rights Are Not Residual”). AUME considers that the COVID-19 crisis uncovered a concerning situation as regards the exercise of rights and working conditions of members of Spanish the armed forces. The extended report develops several points regarding travel restrictions on national territory, a lack of professional expectations regarding ranks, frozen wages, uncertainty for temporary personnel, insufficient infrastructures and accomodations, the absence of social dialogue between associations and the Ministry of Defence, etc. AUME closely with works with other associations (ASFASPRO-NCOs, ATME-Enlisted) to defend a common position on these issues in Spain.

In October 2020, the Ministry of Defence launched Mission Baluarte to track the virus.

Update January 2021: article.

In April 2021, the armed forces are still supporting the national struggle against the virus in different domains like means of transport, disinfection expertise, training, etc. and providing military personnel to support the Autonomous Communities (regions) with trackers of the contacts of people who have been tested positive.

Update January 2022:

Given the strong impact in the country of the Omicron variant since mid-December, the assistance of military personnel to the autonomous communities (regions) was reactivated for tracking positive cases.

Vaccination rate in Spain is almost 90 per cent, including armed forces personnel, with only exceptional cases of soldiers refusing to receive the vaccine. Such individuals have to sign a document expressing their will and they cannot participate in many activities of the unit. They are excluded from taking part in missions abroad.

The current wave of Covid (Omicron) is greatly affecting the normal operations of the units, due to the large number of personnel who remain in quarantine at home. Most are asymptomatic or with mild symptoms.  Although health personnel are under great pressure, the impact on hospitals is relatively controlled as the majority of the population are now fully vaccinated.


EUROMIL Swedish member SAMO released its position on the Swedish Defence measures.

The armed forces have not been so much involved in the COVID-19 crisis except initially for setting up a field hospital and helping other agencies with few staff officers. Some officers are still there and helping in October 2020. Some soldiers have also helped agencies to test citizens randomly to get statistical numbers.

In May 2021 was announced that personnel serving abroad will be vaccinated against COVID-19.

Update January 2022:

New control measures were implemented in January. Further regulations for public gatherings and public events indoors. Working from home as much as possible and limiting the number of close contacts are strongly advised. Vaccination against COVID-19 is voluntary.


Information on the tasks carried out by Swiss military personnel against COVID-19 can be found here.

In April 2020, the media reported poor and unsuitable working conditions, putting the security of military personnel at risk. Further information available here.

The Swiss armed forces stopped their support mission against COVID-19  on 17 June 2020 and immediately had an “after action review“.  All soldiers who served for a minimum of10 days  received a decoration. A summary of the mission in numbers can be found here.


Since December 2020, the Swiss armed forces are supporting the authorities with logistics and protection for the vaccination campaign.


Health supplies have been sent to countries including Italy and Spain via A400M aircraft belonging to the Turkish armed forces. Further information can be found here.

Additionally, medical supplies have been sent to Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Kosovo via Turkish armed forces plane. Further information can be found here.


Ukrainian armed forces requested international and humanitarian assistance in response to COVID-19, to prevent the spread of the virus in their military units.

COVID-19 infection саses recorded in the armed forces of Ukraine, 19 May 2020, available here. Epidemic situation on 30 March 2021 available here.

United Kingdom
United Kingdom

The Ministry of Defence put an additional 10,000 military personnel at a higher readiness and placed Reserves on standby to support public services as part of a new “COVID Support Force”. Full article available here. The COVID Support Force, with 2,689 personnel deployed, is currently supporting the public services to respond to the outbreak.

On Wednesday 8 April, the Defence and Security Accelerator (DASA) launched a £1 million fund to fast-track innovation to aid the armed forces in the fight against COVID-19.

Here a video with further information on the role of British armed forces in the fight against COVID-19.

According to updates as of 16 April, thirteen thousand members of the armed forces are said to be absent from duty because of coronavirus, largely because they are self-isolating, looking after other family members or otherwise having to work from home.

Gen Sir Nick Carter said that around 3,000 forces personnel were helping to carry out a number of frontline tasks in the UK, including 200 working in the ambulance services, as well as assisting the emergency delivery of protective equipment, oxygen and ventilators for hospitals.
“Our role is very much in support of the heroic healthcare workers on the frontline”, the general said.

In May 2020, Defence Minister Johnny Mercer announced extra funding to support frontline armed forces charities across the UK. The announcement follows the recent launch of 2 platforms specifically designed to support the defence community. Veterans’ Gateway and HeadFIT, a platform, helping defence personnel take a more proactive approach to their mental health and fitness.

Information on COVID-19 cases in defence, October 2020, available here.

In December, it was announced that the military will support the testing of thousands of secondary school and college students in England, read here.


The latest information on the involvement of the British armed forces in the crisis can be found here.


International organisations

European Union
European Union


On Monday 6 April 2020, EU Defence Ministers held a videoconference to discuss the defence implications of the Covid-19 pandemic.

They focused on military assistance to face the crisis and the situation of EU military and civilian missions and operations under the framework of the Common Security and Defence Policy. It was decided to explore setting up a task force led by the EU Military Staff to better exchange information and share best practices among EU member states, in full coordination with NATO.

In his final remarks, Josep Borrell, High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission claimed: “The crisis offers an opportunity to reflect on how we can improve our resilience and use defence initiatives to develop defence capabilities required to address similar situations in the future. Ongoing work in security and defence remains a clear priority, now perhaps more than ever. Because from now on, health becomes a security issue”.

The remarks by the Josep Borrell following the videoconference can be found here.

On Monday 20 April 2020, the Chairs of the Committees on Foreign Affairs, Development, and Trade, the Subcommittees on Human Rights and on Security and Defence, and of the Conference of Delegation Chairs issued a statement on the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the EU’s external action. They especially thanked all the staff who is working in the front lines fighting the pandemic: “We also thank those on the front lines, fighting the pandemic and working tirelessly and selflessly: we express our deepest gratitude to the doctors and the nurses, humanitarian workers, and all of those who ensure that essential services are still being provided. We welcome the support provided by armed forces throughout the EU to public health services, in particular in the field of cross-border cooperation”.

After meeting commanders of EU military and civilian missions and operations on Thursday 23 April, Nathalie Loiseau, the Chair of the Sub-Committee on Security and Defence (SEDE) underlined:  “Our first concern is and must always be the health and safety of the European Union’s personnel deployed in CSDP (Common Security and Defence Policy) missions and operations”.

On 28 April, the European Parliament think tank published a briefing by Tania Lattici: “The role of the armed forces in the fight against coronavirus”.

In the briefing you can find both summary and figures on the activities carried out by the armed forces in response to COVID-19. As stated in the analysis, the COVID-19 pandemic largely challenged society’s view of the role of military personnel who have been among the first responders in this crisis. Both EU Member States and the whole world deployed their armed forces to assist authorities and citizens in the fight against the pandemic.

In this regard, current EU defence initiatives could see the EU being better prepared to face future pandemics among other threats. This represents one of the reasons why it is important not to reduce the EU defence budget.

On 6 May 2020, during the EU-Western Balkans Zagreb summit,  EU leaders focused on the future relations and cooperation to fight the COVID-19 pandemic. The EU actively supported Western Balkans to tackle the COVID-19 outbreak and its impact on societies and economies. In particular, the EU delivered a package of over EUR 3.3 billion and provided protective personal equipment and testing material.

Furthermore, on this occasion EU leaders adopted the Zagreb declaration, with which the Western Balkans partners have aligned themselves.

Further information are available here.

On 12 May 2020, Defence Ministers held a video conference. Ministers discussed the security and defence implications of the Covid-19 pandemic, focusing in particular on the crucial role played by armed forces in supporting civilian actors and providing cross-border support among member states. HRVP Borrell said: “The Covid-19 pandemic will very likely deteriorate our security environment in the years to come, which only increases the need for stronger EU security and defence.”

In the Chairman newsletter of the EU Military Committee (Mar-Apr 2020), Gen. Claudio Graziano, writes that “At EU level, we promptly reacted to ensure our duty of care towards our staff, both in Brussels, in delegations, but moreover in Operations and Missions, with a series of guidelines aiming at striking a balance between operational continuity and safety for our personnel, which remains on top of our priorities. In fact, the welfare of our men and women, our most valuable strength, must be guaranteed at all costs.”

In June 2020, the European Parliament published a briefing on reviewing social and employment policy recommendations made by European and international organisations in relation to the coronavirus crisis. The European Parliament Think Tank also published information on CSDP missions and coronavirus .

In June 2020, the European Commission published a directive amending Annex III to the Biological Agents Directive 2000/54/EC to classify COVID-19 as a biological agent known to infect humans. A EUROMIL factsheet about the process and next steps is available here.

The European Parliament Think Tank analysed the states of emergencies in different member states in response to the COVID-19 pandemic (also regulating the use of the armed forces), they are available here, here, here and here.

The European Parliament Think Tank published a briefing on EU Public Health Policy and an in depth-analysis on Ten opportunities for Europe post-coronavirus: Exploring potential for progress in EU policy-making, featuring amongst others security and defence, health as well as the future of work. It also published a study “Towards a more resilient Europe post-coronavirus: An initial mapping of structural risks facing the EU“.

In summer 2020, the European Parliament published a briefing on “How the COVID-19 crisis has affected security and defence-related aspects for the EU“.

In September 2020, the European Parliament published a briefing on “Upholding human rights in Europe during the pandemic”.

In November 2020, the European Commission took the first steps towards a European Health Union. Factsheet on the impact of COVID-19 and response.

In January 2021, the EPRS published a study on “Air pollution and COVID-19“. This study is about the effects of air pollution on health, notably COVID-19. Additionally, the EPRS issued a study on “EU policy on air quality: Implementation of selected EU legislation“.

In January 2021, Members of the European Parliament expressed broad support for the common EU approach to fighting the pandemic and called for complete transparency regarding contracts and deployment of COVID-19 vaccines. Further information here.

In January 2021, the Commission issued a Communication entitled “A united front to beat COVID-19”.

In January 2021, the European Parliament adopted a resolution on the gender perspective in the
COVID-19 crisis and post-crisis period.

EU Agency for Fundamental Rights
EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA)

The EU Agency for Fundamental Rights has published EU country studies and bulletins on the fundamental rights protection in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The project  outlines some measures EU Member States have put in place to protect public health during the COVID-19 pandemic. The first bulletin is available here. The second report is available here. The third report is available here. The fourth report is available here. The FRA has also called for protection of workers’ fundamental rights in tackling impact of fundamental rights. The sixth bulletin deals with social rights here.

European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work (EU-OSHA)

EU-OSHA published a webpage “Healthy Workplaces Stop the Pandemic” with guidance documents aimed at supporting employers in the provision of a safe and healthy working environment for employees. The guidance for the workplace published by WHO, CDC, ECDC and HSE is available at the following link.


On 15 April 2020, NATO Defence Ministers held a videoconference to decide the Alliance’s next steps in the fight against Covid-19.

They discussed about:

  1. their ongoing efforts to ensure NATO uses its military resources, equipment and strategic airlift capability most effectively. As stated by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg “While we continue to take all the necessary measures to protect our armed forces, our operational readiness remains undiminished”
  2. the importance of countering disinformation both from state and non-state actors
  3. the long-term implications and the geo-political effects of COVID-19 and how NATO prepares for it. Ministers agreed a set of recommendations to strengthen our resilience.

The press conference following the virtual meeting is available at the following page.

NATO’s Response to the COVID-19 pandemic can be found in this factsheet, updated as of 14 April 2020.

Furthermore, NATO offers a LibGuide with all the information on the political and national security consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. Some highlights, updated to 4 April 2020, of the Allied nations’ activities to support the fight against COVID-19 can be found here.

All the latest news concerning NATO’s approach to COVID-19 are available at the following page.

On 14 May 2020 the NATO Military Committee held a virtual meeting in Chiefs of Defence format. They discussed the Alliance’s ongoing missions and operations, future planning and requirements as well as the current global Covid-19 crisis, its impact on allied activities and NATO’s support to the response efforts. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg stressed that security challenges have not diminished because of COVID-19 and NATO must continue to ensure that the health crisis does not turn into a security crisis.

NATO measures and mechanisms have already facilitated:

over 150 missions to support and transport medical personnel, supplies, and treatment capabilities;
the construction of more than 50 field hospitals and alternate care facilities;
and the addition of more than 35,000 treatment beds;
supported by the deployment of the deployment of 5,000 military medical professionals in support of civil authorities;
numerous international aero-medical evacuations with critical care teams;
And more than 3,500 Allied citizens are repatriated from around the world.

In June 2020, the European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS) published a fact sheet on NATO’s response in the fight against coronavirus.

In October 2020, The NATO Defence College published a Policy Brief on COVID-19 and the defence policies of European states,

NATO Parliamentary Assembly

The Assembly’s Response to COVID-19 webpage.

The Assembly is conducting interviews on the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences with heads of delegations to the NATO PA: Albania, Denmark, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Poland.

United Nations
United Nations (UN)

In May 2020, UN leads call to protect most vulnerable from mental health crisis during and after COVID-19.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)

OHCHR opened a page to provide a guidance on the respect of human rights during COVID-19, including economic, social, civil and political rights.

The April UN policy brief “COVID-19 and Human Rights. We are all in this together” shows how COVID-19 is affecting human rights and protection in all continents and thereby delivers six key human rights messages in response to the pandemic.

In May 2020, UN Human Rights published guidance on civic space and COVID-19.

In September 2020, the Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedoms of peaceful assembly and of association, M. Clément Voule, published a set of indicators to measure State’s compliance with international standards regarding civic space, peaceful assembly, and political participation during public health emergencies.

Council of Europe
Council of Europe (CoE)

The Council of Europe released an information document to provide governments with a toolkit for dealing with the present unprecedented and massive scale sanitary crisis in a way that respects the fundamental values of democracy, rule of law and human rights.

On 22 April 2020, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe expressed its sadness at the suffering and bereavement caused in Europe and elsewhere in the world by the COVID-19 pandemic during the 1374th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies.  The declaration is available here.

Daems, President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, pointed out the “red lines”  as well as basic guarantees of the rule of law that a democracy should never cross, such as the right to life or the ban on torture and slavery. He warns that the COVID-19 emergency measures fast-tracked by governments around Europe should not become “the new normal”.  The full speech is available here.

In April 2020, the European Committee of Social Rights (ECSR) issued a statement of interpretation
on the right to protection of health in times of pandemic.

COVID-19 portal of the Council of Europe.

International Labour Organisation
International Labour Organisation (ILO)

On 28 April, ILO published an article on the impact of COVID-19 on mental health for many workers such as health workers, people who remotely work from home, people who lost their job, people who are working reduced hours or are facing cuts in their wages and people with disabilities.

Military personnel should be included among those workers, as the armed forces are daily facing huge stress by carrying out challenging activities for which they have no specific training. These “unusual” tasks can have consequences on their mental health during and after their performances. This is one of the reason why military personnel should be represented in trade unions and professional associations, as any other worker.


ILO issued social protection responses to the COVID-19 crisis and called to strengthen social protection systems. Further information available here.  As stated by Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO Director-General: “The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the urgent need for strong national programmes to protect the health and safety of health workers, medical professionals, emergency responders, and the many other workers risking their lives on our behalf.”

ILO used the “World Day for Safety and Health at Work” to launch a campaign on the improvement of safe practices in workplace and the role of occupational safety and health (OSH) measures in response to COVID-19.

In this respect, ILO published the “SafeDay report” to highlight the measures needed to prevent work-related safety and health risks caused by the pandemic, including the risk of contagion, stress and psychosocial diseases. The report particularly addresses social dialogue, as a powerful and unique means to ensure safe and decent working conditions of workers, especially during this global health crisis.

ILO issued guidance for safe, healthy, return to work during COVID-19.

ILO Policy Brief on the World of Work and COVID-19, released on 19 June 2020.

On 25 January 2021, ILO published an analysis of the labour market impact of COVID-19. This is the 7th edition of the Monitor report series that tracks the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on workers and businesses worldwide.

WHO/ILO Guidance on occupational health and safety measures for health workers and occupational health services in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, published 2 February 2021.

ILO video on protecting the mental health of health and care workers in the COVID-19 pandemic, published 12 February 2021.



Trade Unions and Civil Society Organisations

European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) and European Trade Union Institute  (ETUI)

The ETUC, with the support of the ETUI and and ETUC affiliated organisations, launched  a series of ‘COVID-19 Watch’ briefing notes about the impacts of COVID-19 on labour markets, workers and citizens across Europe. The ETUC also maintains a website on “Trade unions and Coronavirus“.

The 20th edition of the “Benchmarking Working Europe” focuses on “Workers and COVID: the crisis and beyond”. Access the 2020 version here.

International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC)

On the International Workers’ Memorial Day, the ITUC and its Global Unions partners called for COVID-19 to be classified as an occupational disease in order to ensure stronger workplace protections and access to compensation as well as to medical care.

International Organisation of Employers (IOE)

The International Organisation of Employers and the International Trade Union Confederation released a “Joint Statement on COVID-19“. They “underline the critical need for social dialogue at national and multilateral levels to design measures to overcome this impact”. They indeed call for urgent action and, as mentioned in the one of their stated points, they “stress in the strongest terms the important role that social dialogue and social partners play in the control of the virus at the workplace and beyond […]. Joint responsibility is needed for dialogue to foster stability”.

European Movement International (EMI)

The European Movement International published a position paper on a European Union
Response to COVID-19 in June 2020.

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance

On 7 July 2020, the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (International IDEA), with the support of the EU, launched the Global Monitor of COVID-19´s Impact on Democracy and Human Rights. The website is available here.


Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance

On 16 February 2021, the Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance published a briefing note in order to capture the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the armed forces. The authors focus on this issue from two perspectives: how the pandemic has influenced the mandate of armed forces and their operations; and how it has affected the rights of armed forces personnel deployed to assist civilian authorities. The briefing note is available here.

The second briefing note (June 2021) is also now available here and examines how the pandemic has affected ombuds institutions as organizations. It also looks at how the pandemic has influenced the work of ombuds institutions, especially in terms of complaint-handling and fieldwork, and how that has affected their ability to protect the rights of both armed forces personnel and the citizens with whom they have had contact during their COVID-19 deployments.


Think Tanks’ reports on COVID-19 and the recovery fund available here.